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EUROPE: Expectations and Reality. The Challenge for the Social Sciences.
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This publication results from the Second European Social Science Conference
(Bratislava, Slovakia, 13-18 June 1998)

Expectations and Reality

The Challenge for the Social Sciences
Edited by L'ubomír Falt'an

Slovak Commission for UNESCO
- National Committee

Institute for Sociology
Slovak Academy of Sciences

ISBN 80-85544-24-5
© 1999 Institute for Sociology,
Slovak Academy of Sciences
Published with the support of UNESCO, Paris


L'ubomír Falt'an

The last decade of this century has been marked by massive societal and political changes, particularly in Europe. The socio-political system, which had been influencing the nature of relations for decades (not only in old continent, but all around the world), has crashed.

For some post-communist countries, the downfall of former socialist block has meant rather fast step to the transition path toward the plural democracy, for others the process of socio-political change has been more complicated. However, those socio-political changes in these countries have common denominator - they are accompanied with difficult changes in economical system causing global effects that transgress boundaries of the countries in question. This fact serves as one of the reasons why already in early nineties, under UNESCO auspices, social scientists focused their attention to these starting processes. They expressed it at the First Social Sciences European Conference with subtitle Europe in Transition. A Challenge for the Social Sciences, which took place in 1991 in Spanish town Santander. Development in the years afterwards confirmed that it was the European continent that should become the scene of social processes of high importance. Transition to other socio-political and socio-economical system has raised a lot of unexpected problems concerning existence of multinational states of pre-transitional kind, which as it seems are still latently present. In many cases, the break-up of such states has led to short- or long-term local armed conflicts through local wars. Nationalism revival that is often linked to isolationistic tendencies has took not only tragic form of armed conflicts or wars, but also more subtle forms, which are warning equally in transitional countries as well as in those "more stable, with well established democratic system". They show themselves in ethnical, religious, or cultural intolerance to "others", which slides easily and abruptly to various forms of extremism. Social situation of transforming societies is notably complicated also by their uneasy economical situation, by high degree of unemployment, by increasing social differentiation as well as by poverty manifestations that even strengthen feeling of uncertainty of whole social groups. Accompaniment of aforementioned socio-political and economical "turbulencies" in Middle-East and East Europe as well as in some Asian regions, is increased migration intensity throughout Europe. Aforementioned, to certain extend unexpected, problem accumulation in the European area, is, at the same time, related to integration efforts in the frame of EU. The steps leading to some transforming countries integration into this alignment with the aim of helping to solve the problem of political, economical, social as well as ecological stability at the continent more effectively, evoke, on the other hand, apprehension of new "line of demarcation for undetermined time period". This is - even presented in very simplified way - background or social and spatial context which brought together social scientists from 29 countries to capital of Slovakia - Bratislava. The Second Social Sciences European Conference took place there, from 13th to 18th June, again under the UNESCO auspices - its Division for Social Sciences Research and Policy and in co-operation with Slovak Commission for UNESCO and Institute of Sociology - Slovak Academy of Sciences. The conference got the subtitle: Europe: Expectations and Reality. The Challenge for the Social Sciences. Europe, and its middle-east part in particular, already came through its first experiences of whole complexity of unfolding transition processes. The conference can, therefore, reflect experiences gained in practice that comes about with this process. Even it was impossible to encompass all the processes and problems that European continent - its states or societies - is coming through, the conference covered - with varied levels of generalisation - a lot of those problems and processes, that in the long run can influence future direction of development in this area. Two basic optics were incorporated in the conference subtitle:

    - Stressing the importance of the role of social sciences when reflecting transformational changes. European, regional (middle-European or post-communist) or local ("case studies" of the particular state) viewpoints are meeting here at the same time. The ability to reflect the mullti-dimensional character of those changes is often determined not merely by belonging to the particular social scientific discipline and to its theoretical and methodological devices. It depends also on variety of paradigms, on ability to approach social reality and its possible trends of development in interdisciplinary manner and also (after all) on ability of certain "scientific empathy" to understand social processes rooted in certain socio-cultural and time-spatial contexts. Underlining the importance of an institutional context, in which social sciences operate, including the importance and the role of the UNESCO, fits well into this prism.
    - Focusing on particular problems that comes together with transformation process, as well as on social consequences of such problems, was another dimension of the conference. This optic involved four dominant themes:
    Social consequences of ecological problems - Besides a general problems or philosophy of relations between society and natural environment in the context of sustainable development strategies, the particular examples of involvement of social sciences research potential in identifying and solving those problems were analysed.
    Social problems of changing Europe - The attention was focused on some general problems of social transformation evaluation and management, including the risks involved in this process. On the other hand, social problems emerging due to population ageing or typical problems of post-communist countries, such as accommodation or changes in family life were presented.
    Democratic Europe - majority of social scientists are, in current phase of transformation, still attracted mostly by problems related to forms of democracy in its various aspects and relations to differentiated social reality in European area. Reflection of problems concerning ethno-nationalism, multi-lingualism, multi-culturalism, and problems of political culture were presented in particular papers. Authors of those papers consider also possible trends of future development and possible risks for democracy development in Europe in general, as well as in its particular countries. At the same time the role of social sciences in research of aforementioned problems is considered here.
    The role of Europe in a global society - More attention should be paid in future to this problem, above all, with respect to the changes toward the political and economical integration of Europe. What is the role of European traditions, confrontation with other European cultures (e.g. Muslim culture), how the relation between globalization and struggle for sustainable development is shaped, how the World perceives the Europe? These are, among others, the questions, to which the contributions, in this section, try to find the answer.
    Conclusions and recommendations - have become a part of the present publication as they resulted and were accepted at the conference concluding discussion. They state certain general principles (summarised by Bulgarian participant N. Genov), which should be respected by social scientific research, as well as those decisive bodies that are competent to influence direction of such a research.
We should believe that present publication will become a part of the "European self-reflection" concerning its direction and "self-reflection of social sciences" on the role they should play in this process.

Bratislava, June 1999


L'ubomír Falt'an

United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization
Federico Mayor

Transformation and Social Sciences

Social Transformation, Development, and European Social Sciences
Bernd Hamm (Word format)

Post-Communist Transformation and the Development of Social Sciences - the Czech Case
Michal Illner  (Word format)

Principales orientations pour les sciences sociales
Anne Marie Laullan  (Word format)

Greater Commitment to Social Sciences
Liviu Matei  (Word format)

Social Sciences and the Challenge of Transition in Slovakia
Eduard Šarmír, Štefan Zajac, Dušan Caplovic  (Word format)

Voyeur oder Mitgestalter? Die Sozialwissenschaften Ostmitteleuropas in der Systemtransformation
Pal Tamás  (Word format)

The Objectives of the Social Theory in a Changing Europe
Mihai D. Vasile  (Word format)

Two Paradigms of Analysis of the Transformations in East-Central Europe
Marek Ziólkowski  (Word format)

The Role of the Most Programme for European Social Science
Francine Fournier  (Word format)

The Social Impact of Ecological Problems

The General Social-environmental Framework at the Beginning of a Sustainable Development Strategy
Ivan Rynda  (Word format)

Understanding the Interactions Nature/Society for Land Use
Nelson Lourenço  (Word format)

The Relation of Students to the Environment - a Sociological Investigation
Milena Moyzeová, Zita Izakovicová  (Word format)

The Application of Indicators of Sustainability in Regional Development in Slovakia
Milena Moyzeová, Zita Izakovicová  (Word format)

People - Environment Relations as a Research Topic in Social Sciences in Slovakia
Viera Rosová  (Word format)

The Social Problems of Changing Europe

Elderly People in an Ageing Europe
Bernardína Bodnárová (Word format)

Assessment and Management of Transformation Risks in a Changing Europe
Nikolai Genov (Word format)

Research for the Management of Social Transformation
Thomas Kleininger and Warren Crowther (Word format)

A Discussion of the Housing Problem in Slovakia
Zuzan Kusá, Ivan Kusý (Word format)

A Crisis or a Transition of Family Behaviour in Slovakia
Magdalena Piscová (Word format)

Democratic Europe

Co-operative Ways into Future: Local Agenda 21, a Joint Vision Development Process
Andrea Grabher, Michael Narodoslawsky and Helmut Retzl (Word format)

The Impact of Outside Actors and Constituency Fear on Ethnic Party Demands
Erin K. Jenne (Word format)

Systems in Transition: From Past Experience to Future Challenges
Kopcanová Dagmar, Scharwiess Susan (Word format)

Ethno nationalism and Problems of Nation-Building in Transitional Societies: the Case Kazakstan
Rustem Kadyrzhanov  (Word format)

Democratic Governance in Multilingual Societies: A Research Topic in the Most Programme
Matthias Koenig  (Word format)

Reshaped Regional Multiculturalism in the Post-Communist Europe
Mislav Kukoc  (Word format)

New State and Society in Confrontation with the New Reality
(Some reflections on democracy in Poland)
Joanna Kurczewska  (Word format)

Contradictory Trends in the Development of Democratic Culture
Mariana Zakhariewa  (Word format)

Democratic Processes within Plurilingual Europe
Sue Wright  (Word format)

Europe's Role in a Global Society

Will There be a Europe in a Global Society
Nilgun Celebi  (Word format)

Globalization in Europe - The Concept of Progress, Nature and Sustainable Development
Jana Gašparíková  (Word format)

The Japanese Images of Foreign Countries
Yoshimoto Kawasaki  (Word format)

Moslem World Europe
Asadov Adil Iskender Oglu  (Word format)

Russia Before 2000: Looking Back and Looking Ahead
Vladimir Rukavishnikov  (Word format)

European Democracy and Integration Reconciled
Jelica Stefanovic  (Word format)



of the Second European Social Science conference
EUROPE: Expectations and Reality
The Challenge for the Social Sciences
Bratislava, 13-18 June, 1998

The Second European Social Science Conference, organized under the auspices of UNESCO, brought together representatives of UNESCO national commissions, members of social science organizations, of international organizations and individuals from 31 European countries. The Conference aimed at promoting transnational, transdisciplinary and practically relevant social science. It continued and accentuated efforts already made in this direction by the First European Conference held in Santander, Spain, in 1991.

The participants in the Conference,

    · guided by mutual respect and willingness to cooperate,

    · inspired by the principles of UNESCO for freedom of research and communication,

    · led by the vision about an European continent free of mistrust and hostilities, of excessive inequalities and injustice,

    · aware of the challenges to social sciences posed by the current processes of globalization, regionalization and national transformations,

    · convinced in the enormous capacities of social sciences to enlighten public mind and to influence decision-making at major social institutions,

    · also convinced that the funding for international, transdisciplinary and future oriented social science research must be significantly increased,

discussed the problems of social sciences at plenary sessions, in four Working Groups on "The Social Impact of Ecological Problems", "The Social Problems of a Changing Europe", "Democratic Europe" and " Europe's Role in a Global Society" as well as in a Round Table on funding social sciences. They approve the following Conclusions and Recommendations:

Changes in the Thematic Orientation of Social Science Research

It becomes more and more obvious that the destiny of human kind in general and of the European continent is powerfully shaped by global trends. Deepening environmental imbalances, growing inequalities between regions, nations and groups, increasing incapacity of governments to cope with national problems, looming educational and cultural disparities are of increasing concern to the social sciences. That is why

· special attention in social scientific research should be paid to global trends and to their regional and local implications.
In the beginning of the nineties the belief was widespread that fast and easy solutions to major social problems might be found and successfully applied. The recent sobering experience of economic instabilities, ethnic and religious clashes and military operations leads to a different assessment of expected developments on the European continent. The research on poverty and unemployment, on the changing role of the state, problems of democracy, innovations in mass media, in religious orientations and issues of multiculturalism and social ecology can tangibly contribute to the assessment and management of risks in the current social transformations. That is why
· the topics of social, ethnic and cultural integration and exclusion, social cooperation and conflict should be paid well-balanced attention in social scientific theorizing, research and teaching.
The transformations in Europe, especially in Central and Eastern Europe, underline the need of comprehensive theoretical models of social development. There can be substantial tensions and time lags between transformations of economy, politics and culture. The needs of diagnostic and prognostic work in social sciences require that sectoral developments should be analyzed in the context of a holistic approach to societal development. It should be applied to regions as Central and Eastern Europe or the Mediterranean as well. The guiding normative principles of this approach should be
    · the vision of sustainable economic, political, cultural, social and environmental development oriented to universal ethical principles.

New Patterns of Organization of Fundamental and Applied Research

The organizational changes in social sciences are especially intensive in the eastern part of the continent. In Central and Eastern Europe, a proliferation of independent research units (associations, institutes, centres, groups, clubs) is taking place. Most of them focus their activities on applied research. The new research units are open to thematic, organizational and methodological innovations but most of them are too much market oriented. The quality of their research has been questioned on many occasions. The crucial organizational problem in this context concerns the fast retreat of the state from organizational obligations to science. We recommend that

    · the institutional support to social sciences in Central and Eastern Europe should be strengthened.
During the nineties we have witnessed an important turn towards internationalization of social science through the activities of international research teams. They have been fostered by national bodies or by international organizations like the European Union. The further development of European social science cooperation requires an increased opening to and collaboration with social science communities from other regions of the world. Thus, the Conference recommends that
    · every effort be made to foster the social science cooperation between Europe and the rest of the world.
A special case in this organizational development is the establishment of the new social scientific programme of UNESCO Management of Social Transformations (MOST) which originated from the First European Social Science Conference. In only few years the MOST Programme became an inspiring nucleus in the efforts to establish functioning international research teams and to foster the practical application of their research results. We recommend to the national social scientific communities
    · to strengthen their organizational links with the MOST Programme by establishing MOST liaison committees and by participating in research projects, exchange of data, scientific meetings and publications initiated or endorsed by the Programme.
The participants in the Conference also support the programmes co-ordinated by the International Social Science Council like the Programme on Poverty and the International Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change Programme. As a result of the discussions, the proposal was made
    · to consider the establishment of an European Network for Sustainable Urban and Regional Development.

Trends in Funding Social Sciences

At present, all over Europe social sciences have difficult times in raising the necessary financial support at national level. However, the financial difficulties of the national scientific communities vary substantially. Social sciences in Central and Eastern Europe are most affected by the cuts of budgets for research. This is understandable with a view to the serious economic problems of most countries in the region. The participants in the Conference would like to underline the point that social sciences are a valuable national resource. Given the difficult funding situation, it would be advisable

· to look for new ways of funding of social sciences by national science foundations, UNESCO, ILO, UNDP, the European Union, as well as from the private sector.

The Practical Application of Social Sciences

Social sciences are playing an increasingly important role in the preparation, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies intended to handle major social problems, such as unemployment, impoverishment, drug abuse, crime and other phenomena. We urge decision-makers and the public at large

    · to make use of the full potential of the social sciences for making social policies more rational and better adapted to human needs.
In the course of the nineties a new practical need became increasingly visible and relevant namely the need to prepare and apply strategies for sustainable development of communities, regions, countries, and of the whole world. This is a typical multidisciplinary task which will very much foster the development of European social sciences. Its resolution will need a free access to data of various origins. That is why
    · the operationalization and practical applications of the concept of sustainable development requires an intensive involvement of disciplines from all areas of social sciences.
Social sciences can facilitate the efforts to cope with the major challenges in contemporary world not by producing knowledge alone. The knowledge itself should be disseminated through formal education at all levels in order to enable individuals to better cope with the changing social world. That is why,
    · governments and international organizations together with social scientists themselves should pay more attention to the teaching of social sciences at all levels of education.

The Social Sciences at UNESCO

Over the last 50 years UNESCO has played a valuable role in developing research and teaching in social sciences. The Organization has also fostered the application of the social sciences to major fields of activity such as education, environment, development, poverty, peace, democratization and human rights, multiculturalism and urban issues. The Second European Social Science Conference notes with satisfaction that UNESCO is attaching a central importance and gives visibility to its social science programme. The Conference requires

    · that the UNESCO's social science programmes and notably the MOST Programme continue to be supported so as to materialize their contribution to policy-making in the member-states and in all the fields of competence of the Organization.
As seen in this broad intellectual and organizational contexts, social sciences can do much for the future of Europe. It depends on social scientists to make this promise come true.


Asadov Adil Iskender Oglu
Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences, Institute of Philosophy and Law
31, Huseyn Javid Pr., Baku, 370 143, Azerbaijan Republic
Tel.: +994-12-393491; Fax: +00994-12-925699

Bodnárová Bernardína
Institute for Forecasting, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Šancova 56, 811 05 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
Tel.: +421-7-395275; Fax: +421-7-395029; e-mail: Beba@progero.savba.sk

Celebi Nilgun
UNESCO National Commities Turkey, Ankara University, Faculty of Letters, Department Sociology, 06100 Ankara, Turkey
Tel.: +90-312-3103280; Fax: +90-312-3105713;
e-mail: celebi@pallas.dialup.ankara.edu

Caplovic Dušan, Zajac Štefan
Presidium of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, Štefánikova 49, 814 48 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
Tel.: +421-7-392751

Falt'an L'ubomír
Institute for Sociology, Slovak Academy of Science, Klemensova 19, 813 64 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
Tel.: +421-7-364355; Fax: +421-7-361312; e-mail: SuFaltan@klemens.savba.sk

Fournier Francine
Mrs., Assistant Director-General
UNESCO, 1, rue Miollis, 75732 Paris Cedex 15, France
Tel.: +33-1-45683923; Fax: +33-1-45667603, e-mail: a.le-louet@unesco.org

Gašparíková Jana
Institute for Forecasting, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Šancova 56, 813 64 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
Tel.: +421-7-395267; Fax: +421-7-395029; E-mail: Jana@pu.savba.sk

Genov Nikolai
Institute of Sociology, 13A, Moskovska Str., 1000 Sofia, Bulgaria

Tel.: +359-2-9806132; Fax: +359-2-803791; e-mail: nbgen.most.risk@datacom.bg

Grabher Andrea, Narodoslawsky Michael and Retzl Helmut
Technical University - Graz, Institute of Chemical Engineering
Inffeldgasse 25, 8010 Graz, Austria
Tel. +42-316-8737464; Fax: +43-316-8737469
E-mail: Grabher@glvt.tu-graz.ac.at
Institute DDr. Retzl, Am Anger 5, A-4040 Linz, Austria
Tel.: +43-732-737050; Fax: +43-732-73705030, E-mail: institut@institut-retzl.at

Hamm Bernd
Centre for European Studies, University of Trier, D 54286 Trier, Germany
Tel:+49-651-2012727; Fax: +49-651-2013930; e-mail: hamm@uni-trier.de

Illner Michal
Institute of Sociology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Jílska 1,
110 00 Prague 1, Czech Republic
Tel.:+420-2-24220256; Fax: +420-2-24220278; e-mail: Illner@soc.cas.cz

Jenne Erin Kristin
PhD.Candidate, politcal science Stanford University
Institute of Sociology Academy of Sciences, Jílska 7, 11 000 Prague 1, Czech Republic
Tel.: +420-2-821612; Fax: +42-2-24220278; e-mail: erink@leland.stanford.edu

Kadyrzhamov Rustem
Institute for Philosophy, Kazak Academy of Sciences, 29, Kurmangazy st., Almaty, 481 100, Republic of Kazakstan
Tel.: +7-3272695911; Fax: +7-3272-631207; e-mail: data@itte.kz

Kawasaki Yoshimoto
CHUO University, Department of Sociology, Faculty of Letters, Higashimakano 742-1, Hachioji Tokyo, Japan
Tel.: +81-426-743841; Fax: +81-426-743853; E-mail: Kawasaki@tamacc.chuo-u.ac.jp

Kleininger Thomas and Crowther Warren
UNDP Bucharest, 16 Aurel Vlaicu str. P.O.Box 1-701 Bocharest, Romania
Tel.: +401 312 9959; Fax: +401 3129959; e-mail: office@undp.ro

Koenig Matthias
Institute for Sociology, Department of Social Sciences and Philosophy, University of Marburg, D-35032 Marburg, Germany
Tel.: +496421 28 6629; Fax: +496421 28 8978; e-mail: Koenig@stud-mailer.uni-marburg.de

Kopcanová Dagmar, Scharwiess Susan
The Research Institute on Psychology and patopsychology, Trnavská cesta 112, 821 02 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
Tel.: +421-7-5661325; Fax: +421-7-5220973; e-mail: xvudpapa@savba.sawa.sk

Kukoc Mislav
Institute of Social Sciences "Ivo Pilar", Maruli_ev trg 19/I. PP 277, 10 000 Zagreb, Croatia
Tel.: +385-1-4828305; Fax: +385-1-4828296; e-mail: Mislav.Kukoc@ipdi.hr

Kurczewska Joanna
Institute of Philosophy and Sociology PAW, Warszaw, Patac Staszica Nowy Swiat 72, Poland
Tel.: +482-2-8267823; Fax: +482-2-8267823;

Kusá Zuzana,
Institute for Sociology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Klemensova 19, 813 64 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
Tel.: +421-7-326321 ex.; Fax: +421-1-361312; e-mail: Sukusa@klemens.savba.sk

Kusý Ivan
Department of Humanistics Faculty of Architecture Slovak Technical University, Nám. Slobody 3, 801 000 Bratislava, Slovak Republic

Laullan Anne Marie
Commission Nationale Francaise pour l’ UNESCO, 36 rue La Pérouse, 75 775, Paris Cedex 16, France
Tel.: +33-1-43176635; Fax: +33-1-43176773

Laurenço Nelson
Universidade Nova de Lisboa, AV DE Ceuta, No - 14-1300 Lisboa, Portugal
Tel.: +351-1-362336; Fax: +351-1-3626341; e-mail: Nelson@mail.eunet.pt

Matei Liviu
Ministry of Education, Department of International Relations, Berthelot - 30, Bucharest, Romania
Tel.: +40-161-31013; Fax: +40-131- 26614; e-mail: Lmatei@iris.sinf.edu.ro

Mayor Federico
Director-General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (1987-1999)

Moyzeová Milena, Izakovi_ová Zita
Institute of Landscape Ecology SAS, Štefánikova 3, 814 99 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
Tel.: +421-7-394849; Fax: +421-7-394508; e-mail: Zita@uke.savba.sk

Piscová Magdalena
Institute for Sociology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Klemensova 19, 813 64 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
Tel.: +421-7-364355 ex.; Fax: +421-1-361312; e-mail: Supiscov@klemens.savba.sk

Rosová Viera
Department of Social and Biological Communication, SAS, Dúbravská cesta 19, 813 64 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
Tel.: +421-7-375683; Fax: +421-7-373442; e-mail: KSBKVERO@savba.sk

Rukavishnikov Vladimir
Institute of Socio-Political Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky pr. 32-a, Moscow 117 334, Russia
Tel.: +7-095-3434718Fax: +7-095-39818896; e-mail: Rukavish@matrix.ru

Rynda Ivan
The Charles University, Environment Centre, Petrská 3, 116 36 Prague 1, Czech Republic
Tel.: +420-2-2315334; Fax: +420-2-3215324; e-mail: ivan.rynda@ruk.cuni.cz

Stefanovic Jelica
Faculty of Political Sciences, University of Beograd, Jove Ili_a 165, 11 000 Yugoslavia
Tel.: +38-111-673982; Fax: +38-111-763285; e-mail: vije@beotel.yu

Šarmír Eduard
Institute for Forecasting, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Šancova 56, 811 05 Bratislava, Slovak Republic
Tel.: +421-7-395261; Fax:+421-7-395275; e-mail: sarmir@pu.savba.sk

Tamás Pal
Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 1068 Budapest, Benczúr utca 33, Hungary
Tel.: +36-1-3221685; Fax: +36-1-3515455, E-mail: H8756tam@Ella.hu

Vasile Mihai D.
Social Theory Institute
BD Iuliu Maniu, ur. 1-3, Bucharest, 70007, P.O. 16-281, Romania
Tel.: +401-4-101005; Fax: +401-4-101005; e-mail: dminca@univermed-cdgm.ro

Wright Sue
Department of Languages and European Studies, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, United Kingdom
Tel.: +44-121-359 3611 est 4234; Fax: +44-121-3596153;
e-mail: s.m.wright@aston.ac.uk

Zakhariewa Mariana
Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Sociology, 13 A, Moskovska Str., 1000 Sofia
Tel.: +3592-9806132; +3592-803791; e-mail: nbgen.most.risk@datacom.bg

Ziólkowski Marek
Institute of Sociology, University of Adam Mickiewicz, ul. Szamarzewskiego 91, 60-568 Poznan, Poland
Tel: +48-61-8475383; Fax: +48-61-8475383; e-mail: Ziolkowski@socjo.amu.edu.pl

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