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MOST Newsletter No. 2
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MOST Newsletter
No. 2 - March 1995
also available in
French and in Spanish


The World Summit for Social Development will bring together from 6 to 12 March 1995, in Copenhagen Heads of State and Government from different countries of the world to address urgent social problems, focusing on ways and means of eradicating poverty, generating increased productive employment and fostering social cohesion in different societies.

The Summit presents a unique opportunity to redefine public policy in ways which address both economic and social concerns. It offers a real platform for the formulation of an active agenda for fostering equitably distributed economic growth and for laying a strong foundation for peace and justice, respect for human rights, democratic governance and the emergence of cultures and lifestyles that are more in harmony with nature. As the Director-General of UNESCO has stated in his policy paper (“ Towards the preparation of the World Summit for Social Development ”), only a radically new approach to development policy can allow the eradication of poverty and social exclusion, the incorporation of people into more productive roles and the control of explosive population growth and associated deterioration of the natural resource base.

UNESCO, through its various programmes, including MOST, has strived to encourage an informed public debate on the issues before the Social Summit. To this end, it has organised regional and international meetings involving leading policymakers, scholars and representatives of the civil society, particularly the International Symposium on Public Policies, Citizens´ Action and Social Development, organised jointly with the City and University of Bologna (Bologna, Italy, 2-3 December 1994) and the International Seminar on Science and Technology for Social Development, organised jointly with India´s National Institute of Science and Technology and Development Studies (NISTADS) (New Delhi, 12-14 December 1994). At the Summit itself, UNESCO is organising three events, the first is an international symposium by MOST and several partners on social exclusion (see below), the second is a round table on poverty, in co-operation with the Comparative Research on Poverty (CROP) programme of the International Social Science Council, and the third is the Side-Summit of the 9 most populous developing countries (Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria and Pakistan). In follow-up of the Social Summit UNESCO is expected to play a major role, concentrating mainly on the issues of social exclusion and social integration, through actions and programmes which continue to put stress on development as a process that is people-centred, equitable, and socially and environmentally sustainable. J.N.


On the occasion of the Copenhagen Social Summit, MOST has taken the initiative of organising an international symposium, from 2-4 March 1995, in Roskilde, near Copenhagen, on "From Social Exclusion to Social Cohesion: Towards a Policy Agenda", also co-sponsored by the ILO´s International Institute of Labour Studies, the World Health Organisation, the Commission of the European Union (D.G. XII), ORSTOM (l´Institut français de recherche scientifique d´outre-mer) and the host, the University of Roskilde. Some 20 panellists will discuss various key issues of social development, and exchange views with an invited audience of 250 people from NGOs, grass-roots movements, policy-makers and the media.

The Agenda meeting will discuss such issues as:

From social exclusion to social equity: Social exclusion, unemployment and structural underemployment are now world-wide problems. Processes of dualization affect all types of societies - industrialised and developing - under different forms and levels of gravity. How can this trend be reversed with social equity restored as a fundamental value and policy goal, while respecting the requirements of ecological prudence and economic efficiency?

The need for and ways of changing life styles and consumption patterns in the North and South: Increasing social inequalities within and between countries, as well as the search for a socially and ecologically sustainable development require a change in the life styles and consumption patterns both in the North and the South. The continuation of the current trends could lead to social apartheid and ecological disasters on a global scale. How can science and technology be redirected to avoid jobless growth and find new ways of satisfying the legitimate needs of populations?

From Welfare State to caring society: The Welfare State, with its goals of full employment and general social protection constituted an important European contribution to the world civilisation. What new forms of action can be implemented, to achieve social objectives while avoiding the excessive financial burden of the earlier modalities of the Welfare State? How can sectoral approaches be overcome, particularly through defining holistic development strategies, oriented towards improved health, education and social services?

Public and Private: New Modalities for Partnership between Social Actors: To secure a social transformation process that balances disparities in wealth and ownership, it is necessary to shift away from the simplistic dichotomy: the State or the market. New forms of partnerships must be found between public authorities at all levels - central, regional and local -, a well-organised civil society, the users and the private sector involving, next to public and private ownership, the third sector (co-operative, communal, mutual aid and private non-profit organisations).

Making cities liveable: At the beginning of the 21st century, half of the world population will be living in cities. Making the latter liveable places is a major policy challenge, given the backlog of unattended employment, housing, environmental, public health and educational needs. What alternative strategies can be formulated for the sustainable management of cities and for development of rural areas which are home to the other half of the world's population?

Figure: Urban population (as percent of total)

(Source: Human Development Report, UNDP, 1994)

A statement prepared at the end of this meeting will be widely diffused to the participants in the World Summit for Social Development. MOST will later disseminate the recommendations which emerge from the Symposium. The Symposium will be the starting point of MOST research and policy assessment activities, in the follow-up of the Copenhagen Summit. A.K.

Just published:

" Searching for New Development Strategies: The Challenges of the Social Summit " by Ignacy Sachs. MOST Policy Papers 1 (to be obtained from the MOST Secretariat)

Special Feature:

International Social Science Journal 143 March 1995 " Measuring and Evaluating Development " For purchases contact: Journals Marketing Manager, Blackwell Publishers, 108 Cowley Road Oxford OX4 1JF, England


One of the concerns of the MOST Scientific Steering Committee and Secretariat is to elaborate continuously upon the three themes of the programme, and other significant fields, currently high on the international policy agenda, particularly exclusion - social cohesion issue.

However, the central thrust of the programme, the unifying notion which lends it coherence, both intellectually and in terms of its longer-term goals, is "social transformations". Since it was chosen as the key-term in the title of this programme it has become one of the catch-words in the international media to characterise the post-Cold-War era. The polysemic nature of the expression is aggravated by its indiscriminate and loose usage.

It is necessary that, in the framework of the MOST Programme a systematic effort be made to clarify the term, increase its precision, distinguish its multiple meanings. In order to make progress in this respect, a series of studies will be undertaken in the next months and a small international workshop, of some ten high level scholars will be organised, with the objective of preparing the first MOST volume on Social Transformations.

Some of the issues that are to be discussed are: is social transformation a distinct concept? in what ways is it different from other notions, such as social change or social transition? what are its theoretical foundations? can it be used to identify a series of empirical social, cultural, political, economic phenomena to which it can be applied, with a reasonable degree of precision? can it be made operative and can it lead to empirical research, data collection and indicator-building? can it become the unifying element of a new interdisciplinary social science field? is it likely to have a policy-relevant dimension? A.K.


A well-defined strategy is needed for successfully building and funding MOST projects, which aim at fostering international, comparative and policy-relevant research on social transformations, with a view to generating and assessing knowledge, and transferring information to decision-makers, NGOs or the media.

MOST is not a research fund. In conformity with UNESCO´s calling and practice, it aims at playing the role of a catalyst, initiator and facilitator of ideas and activities.

It is meant to be a multi-faceted, but coherent scientific programme. Its coherence is both conceptual - social transformations - and practical - establishing bridges between long-term, independent research and policy-making. As a consequence, the programme has to be selective, from the point of view of quality, theme, objectives and outputs. Such characteristics require a carefully planned and co-ordinated approach to project development. The Programme combines bottom-up and top-down approaches. This means that, while there is no interference in the theoretical, methodological and professional independence of researchers, the steering bodies and the Secretariat of MOST do nonetheless play an active part in project development. The Intergovernmental Council establishes the priority areas to be researched, decides on overall policy and funding questions, and handles the relations with governmental authorities; the autonomous Scientific Steering Committee decides on the scientific questions, project evaluation, ethical and professional concerns, thematic development. The Secretariat assists the steering bodies and actively contributes to scientific and substantive development, project building, co-ordination and fund-raising, in support of the research networks. Such active participation and support of the MOST bodies is necessary, for networking and funding of research at the international level is a complex and lengthy enterprise.

The criteria adopted for MOST research, and particularly the requirement of the participation of networks from several countries in large-scale projects (these can be North-South, South-South or North-North projects) have certain implications, particularly as regards the preparation, phasing, co-ordination, funding and the number of research projects accepted under MOST.

The MOST support to project development is in two stages:

  • The project preparation stage, of some 12 months, involves networking across countries, work on project substance, methodology, and initial exploration of funding sources. The MOST Secretariat engages in an active support and co-ordination role. Once the Scientific Steering Committee approves the project and gives it the MOST label, limited seed-money (for instance, to support a workshop of network leaders, to finalise the project design) is provided from the Programme's core budget.
  • In the subsequent operational stages, the MOST Secretariat maintains contacts with the project networks, continues its co-ordinative assistance and, above all, very actively explores and raises, with the collaboration of research networks, the funds required for the project, from extra-budgetary sources. As intermediary and later, end results of the project become available, MOST assists in the diffusion and publication of the results, and in translating research findings to policy formulation.

Given the complexity of mounting and funding long-term international projects, it is planned that MOST accommodate and accompany a very limited number of projects at a given time, including several originating from developing regions. In its efforts to raise funds, MOST gives priority to the needs of research networks and project initiation from developing and also transition countries, in order to keep a proper North-South and West-East balance in the programme. A.K.

Second Meeting of the Scientific Steering Committee

Cairo, Egypt, 4-7 December 1994

The second meeting of the Scientific Steering Committee of MOST was very generously hosted in Cairo by Helwan University, from 4 to 7 December 1994. Some 15 project proposals in the three thematic areas of the Programme , as well as on capacity-building, were evaluated. Four were formally accepted, and thus became the first ones to obtain the “ MOST label ” (see section on approved proposals), while the others were either referred back for revision and subsequent re-evaluation, or were rejected.

The Committee felt that UNESCO should publish an authoritative statement on MOST´s themes. It requested the Secretariat to organise three seminars on multi-cultural policies, on local-global linkages and on social transformations, which should lead to three authoritative volumes on both theory and policy issues. Accordingly, a MOST book series will be launched in the near future, starting with the volume on social transformations. Completed and on-going work will be featured in Discussion papers or in Policy paper series under the “ MOST label ”.


HOST: A Historical Comparative Approach Toward National Industrialisation: Argentina, Bolivia, Thailand, Vietnam

This project obtained the MOST label from the Scientific Steering Committee on its meeting of December 1994. A prime example of international co-operation in social science research and networking, this project, co-ordinated in the initial phase by a French research team, stretches across 4 countries and two continents: Country teams in Asia are located in Thailand and Vietnam; those in Latin America in Argentina and Bolivia. Madagascar, Turkey, Benin and Algeria are joining the network in 1996.

The project seeks to take a new look at those economic and social theories of change which, over the past three decades, have inspired and to some extent governed development strategies in countries from the South. One of the basic premises of the work of this network is an opposition to uniformed approaches to development strategies that make little or no reference to concrete situations and the relevant local specificities that may strongly differentiate one country from another in the development process. The preliminary results of the first phase of this research project highlight in comparative fashion those variables and singular processes that differentiate the development of Thailand, Argentina, Bolivia and Vietnam over a 30 year period. A comparative historical approach of the varied trajectories of the four countries participating in the HOST network will deepen understanding of how each country is confronted today with singular definitions of development politics. In phase one of the research project the emphasis is focused on two particular aspects of growth regimes. The first is the identification of essential variables, which over a longer period of time, determine the relationship between industrialisation and agriculture. For the four countries participating in the HOST network, these variables are actually the basis for many of the specificities observed particularly in the management of space, of specialisation, of labour market transformation, of approaches toward training, of entrepreneurial spirit or of industrial delocalization. A forthcoming MOST Policy Paper documents these variables, and provides a framework for considering them in socio-economic policy formulation, development policies and project development. The second step within the first phase of this 5-year research project is to measure the role played by the global international environment, particularly the influence of external exchange on the acquirement of institutional forms and models as well as on the pace of the industrialisation process. News from the HOST Network will appear regularly in this Newsletter, including policy-relevant highlights from the research results and announcements of publications and upcoming policy seminars. Results from the HOST network will serve to feed current and future development policies and project development in the 4 countries and will be the basis for an exchange of views with NGOs, development specialists and senior policy officials. N.A.

Harvesting rubber in the Province of Dong Nai, Vietnam

'City words'

This project received the MOST label from the Scientific Steering Committee at its December 1994 session in Cairo. The venture is a major international undertaking by a group of scholars who have met periodically and have now constituted an international network with the aim of examining certain interactions in the urban space across different social and cultural milieu. The project is co-ordinated by PIRVilles, an interdisciplinary research programme on cities at the Centre National de la Recherche scientifique (CNRS) in France and it is planned to involve eight networks covering eight linguistic areas: Arab (North Africa, Near East); Chinese; English (Canada, Great Britain, United States); Hindi, Urdu, English (India, Pakistan and South Asia); Italian; Japanese; Russian (Russia); Spanish (South America - Brazil excepted - , Spain) and Portuguese (Brazil).

The overall objective of the project is to collectively elaborate and construct a multicultural and multilingual glossary (not a thesaurus) on the city, and to examine the categories and concepts used in different languages to designate certain aspects of urban realities, which have important implications for action and policy-formulation concerning the cities.

The project will be supported with an initial contribution of 500.000FF, principally by PIR-VILLES/CNRS, and also by the French Ministry of Research and Higher Education and the Fondation de la Maison des Sciences de l'homme. J.N.

Socially Sustainable Cities

This project has the purpose of building an internationally comparable knowledge base for urban management with an emphasis on local policies and local policy impacts and the territorial-institutional nexus. Causal links between social sustainability and local urban management will be examined through comparative and cross-sectoral analysis of the following six key policy areas: urban land and housing; social infrastructure and public services; social and cultural policies; urban transport and accessibility; employment and economic revitalisation; and governance, providing a template for local policy analysis, useful for both researchers and practitioners. There are four large urban research networks involved in this project: GURI, Villes et Developpement, ARNUM and FLACSO.

A core study sample of some twelve cities is contemplated for which primary data would be collected: Montreal, Toronto and possibly Los Angeles in North America; A Randstad city in Holland, Geneva and Vienna in Europe; Mexico City, San Salvador, Sao Paulo, in Latin America; Casablanca/Rabat, Nairobi and Cape Town, in Africa. C.S.J.

Travelling Summer schoolfor advanced training in MOST research areas:

This initiative seeks to establish a specialised training school for young researchers and decision-makers in policy-making. It will offer training in recent theory and research methods and techniques, as well as in practical project design, data collection, processing and analysis. The methodological courses will be centred within key areas of scientific and policy interest such as population studies, public policy development, sector analysis and interethnic and intercultural relations.

The school curricula will have a duration of about 2 months. Teaching staff will be recruited amongst scholars from abroad as well as from the country and the region where the course takes place. The potential host country would be responsible for the local organisation of the school which involves the provision of adequate classrooms, equipment, lodging and the local recruitment of participants. P.d.G.


Funds-in-Trust for MOST activities

Getting back to basics: - what kind of development is sustainable development?

The German Federal Ministry for Research and Technology provided the MOST programme a Funds-in-Trust of US$191,540 for the elaboration and implementation of the first phase of an international research project on "Towards sustainable development paradigms and policies".

The initial phase of this project will concentrate on "Sustainability as a social science concept". In the follow-up of the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development, (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro, the implementation of Agenda-21, and in the work of the UN Commission on Sustainable Development, sustainability has been a concept mainly defined in its ecological dimensions. While there can be no denying the importance of this interpretation, a mono-dimensional definition of sustainability is bound to be reductionist from a scientific perspective and incomplete for purposes of socio-economic policy-making. It is necessary to attempt to define sustainable development as an interdisciplinary and multi-dimensional concept, likely to carve out a path for a new interdisciplinary research and policy field. Such a concept would further bridge theory and data, lead to innovative empirical research, data collection, indicators development and various other policy instruments. The first phase of the project will be concluded by an international meeting, scheduled in Autumn 1995, where the next steps will be defined to include both research and pilot projects, with the participation of research networks from different regions.

Reporting from MOST Liaison Committees:

The national Swiss Liaison Committee met on 19 December as a first step toward developing a project focusing on “ A North-South Comparative Approach on the Role of Women in Coping with Environmental Problems in Small and Medium-Sized Cities ”. The next meeting of the Committee will be in mid-February.

The Indian Government has designated the Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) as the nodal agency for the MOST Programme. The Council has constituted a group to formulate a project for participation under the MOST Programme.

The French MOST National Liaison Group met in early December 1994 to discuss the possibility of hosting an international thematic development meeting on the third MOST theme of “Coping Locally and Regionally with Economic, Technological and Environmental Phenomena ”. Plans are in the making to host this meeting in autumn 1995 in Paris.

Countries with MOST Liaison Committees:

Argentina, Australia, Austria, Benin, Burundi, Canada, Columbia, Costa Rica, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Iceland, India, Iran, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Malawi, Malta, Norway, Pakistan, Philippines, Republic of Belarus, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad & Tobago, Tunisia, Vietnam, Zaire

Next meeting of the MOST Intergovernmental Council
3-7 July 1995
UNESCO headquarters, Paris

The Intergovernmental Council of MOST:

Algeria, Argentina, Bangladesh, Brazil, Bulgaria, Cameroon, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Egypt, France, Germany, Ghana, Republic of Guinea, India, Italy, Japan, Madagascar, Mexico, Netherlands, Pakistan, Philippines, Poland, Russian Federation, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Togo, Tunisia, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

President: Mohammed M. EL GAWHARY (Egypt)
Vice-Presidents:T. DI TELLA (Argentina), N. GENOV (Bulgaria), P. de SENARCLENS (Switzerland), K. TONGDHAMACHART (Thailand), M.A. HERMASSI (Tunisia), D: CHIMANIKIRE (Zimbabwe)
Rapporteur: M ZIOLKOWSKI (Poland)

Next meeting of the MOST Scientific Steering Committee
29 June - 3 July 1995
UNESCO headquarters, Paris

List of members:

Prof. Elvi-Whittaker, Chairperson (Canada)
Prof. Norbert Lechner, Vice-Chairperson (Chile)
Prof. Narifumi M. Tachimoto, Vice-Chairperson (Japan)
Prof. Yoginder K. Alagh (India)
Prof. Maurice Aymard (France)
Prof. Arnlaug Leira (Norway)
Prof. Antoni Kuklinski (Poland)
Mr. Davinder Lambas (Kenya)
Prof. Licia Valladares (Brazil)

Member ex-officio of the SSC:
Prof. Mohammed M. El-Gawhary,
President of the MOST Intergovernmental Council


Preparatory Meeting on a Bosnia-Herzegovina project

Scholars from Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Slovenia and the Republic of Macedonia will participate in a meeting organised with the support of MOST at the Institute for Development and International Relations (IRMO), in late March 1995, in Zagreb.

The meeting will discuss the elaboration of a project on "The Conditions of a Multi-cultural Civil Society in Bosnia-Herzegovina".

Regional Conferences

MOST is organising a series of conferences to launch the programme in all regions of the world. After Central Asia (Bishkek, October 1994) and Asia (Bangkok, November 1994) the next meeting is convened for the Latin American region in Buenos Aires, from 28-31 March 1995. The meeting is organised in co-operation with and the financial support of the Argentinian National Commission for UNESCO. A subsequent regional meeting for the Central and Eastern European region is planned for May 1995 in Budapest (exact dates yet to be determined).

The regional MOST meetings bring together social science researchers and policy makers to identify the regional research and policy priorities in the MOST areas. The meetings are being organised in close collaboration with the National Commissions for UNESCO of the respective host countries: Argentina and Hungary.

Highlights of these conferences will be available in the next issue of the MOST Newsletter.

MOST invited to the "Global Cultural Diversity Conference"

This Conference is organised from 26 to 28 April 1995, in Sydney, under the auspices of the Australian Prime Minister, P.J. Keating, to mark the International Year of Tolerance and the 50th Anniversary of the United Nations and UNESCO. The opening and closing key-note addresses will be delivered respectively by the UN Secretary-General, Mr. B. Boutros-Ghali, and the Director-General of UNESCO, Mr. Federico Mayor.

The Conference will be attended by scholars, policy-makers, practitioners, community leaders and business people from all parts of the world. The Agenda focuses on social cohesion and diversity, and the ways in which the social, cultural, educational, economic and political dimensions of diversity will also be examined. Public policies in multi-culturalism and innovative actions in this field will also be discussed.

A MOST policy document on multi-culturalism will be presented in Sydney and the Programme is expected to participate actively in the follow-up of the Conference.

Sub-Regional Meeting for the Pacific States

This meeting will take place in Sydney, Australia, in early May 1995, as part of the series of regional and sub-regional MOST Conferences, to discuss research and policy perspectives and priorities on the MOST themes and the possibilities of initiating collaborative activities.

The Conference is organised thanks to the support of the Australian National Commission for UNESCO and the Australian Academy of Social Sciences.


Central Asia: Highlights of the Sub-regional Conference

held in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, 25-27 October 1994

Some forty social scientists from Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan participated in this meeting. UNDP, Radio Liberty, and the French Institute for Central Asian Studies in Tashkent were represented at this meeting. The participants emphasized the strong need for independent social science research in the region and the need for Governments to accept the idea that social science research can only be effective in generating policy formulation if it has scientific autonomy.

An important suggestion emerging from the discussions was to strengthen regional cooperation by establishing a Central Asian Social Science Centre (CASSC), that could provide research training, curricula development, documentation facilities, and access to social science data via electronic networks. This centre should be planned in coordination with the International Institute of Central Asian Studies, which is to be established with help of UNESCO in Samarkand, Uzbekistan. It was recommended that MOST undertake a feasibility study to explore the possibility of establishing such a centre in Bishkek. Participation of the UNDP Regional Office in Bishkek will be solicited for this study.

As a result of this meeting two proposals will be considered by the Scientific Steering Committee. The first is a regional social science program named SOCIUM, designed by the Kyrgyz State National University. This programme would coordinate and systematize research and teaching activities in the social sciences in the region. A further objective of SOCIUM is to improve the skills of social scientists and redesign graduate programmes at selected universities.

The second outcome of the meeting is the organization of a training seminar for policy-makers and researchers from the Central Asian Republics, to introduce them to the management of democratic countries with multicultural, multi-ethnic structures. Participants would be members of parliament, high functionaries and policy researchers. Cooperation is actively being sought from countries that can provide examples of pluralistic democratic governance, such as Switzerland. P.d.G.


(Bangkok, 21-24 November 1994)

This regional Conference was attended by sixty academics, policy-makers and development specialists from 21 Asian countries. Highlights of this meeting include the lively discussion around the HOST project (see Accepted MOST Projects above). Participants underscored that migration is a priority issue among many countries of the Asia-Pacific region, and that a major knowledge gap was the long-term social, cultural and political implications of growing ethnic diversity arising from migratory trends in Asia. An upstream comparative project on this topic is being prepared by the Centre for Multi-cultural Studies in Australia's Wollongong University, in collaboration with 9 other Asian countries. The issue of poverty received similar attention and participants supported the idea that a MOST project be designed to follow-up in the 1994 report on poverty of the South Asian Association for Regional Co-operation (SAARC). The discussion during the panel on the socio-economic impact of HIV/AIDS in Asia underscored the tremendously wide, varied and profound impact of the disease across all sectors of society. Through MOST, efforts will be undertaken to follow up on the suggestions of UNDP and UNICEF to co-ordinate actions to initiate a major operational research project in the region, focusing on how HIV/AIDS is affecting the life of women and children and the kinds of support programmes required to meet their specific needs. With respect to the research on cities, the possibility was raised of organising a sub-regional meeting on urbanisation in south-east Asia in Spring 1995 in Australia, in preparation for formulating a specific project in that area. The final report as well as the recommendations adopted in the meeting is available from the MOST Secretariat upon request. The MOST Secretariat is grateful to the Japanese Government for the financial contribution they granted toward the preparation of this Conference. N.A.


This new section of our Newsletter is intended to provide a public space for readers to share opinions, comments or views relating to our articles or to share experiences that have bearing on our activities. If you have something to say please send short texts to the Editor.

MOST Secretariat

Executive Secretary and Director, MOST Newsletter:
Ali Kazancigil

Editor, MOST Newsletter and Multi-cultural and multi-ethnic societies:
N. Auriat
E-mail: n.auriat@unesco.org

Coping locally and regionally with economic, technological and environmental phenomena:
J. Nkinyangi and F. Rademacher

Clearing House/Capacity Building:
P. de Guchteneire

Consultant on Cities:
Céline Sachs-Jeantet

Requests for MOST Documentation:
Catherine Bauer

Senior Administrative Assistant: D. Corbinaud
Senior Secretary: María J. Gutiérrez

Layout and printing: EGOPRIM
Charts: T. Kerscher
Illustrations: Florence Bonjean
Photos: J.N. Desoye (Rapho), Tom van Sant/Geosphere Project (Santa Monica/Science Photo Library), Maria Dorigny (R.E.A.).

National MOST Liaison Committees and UNESCO National Commissions are invited to submit to the Editor information on national MOST activities for publication in upcoming editions of the Newsletter.

Ministries, NGOs, research councils, research institutions, universities and other UN Agencies working with social science research projects may send information to the Editor for diffusion in this publication.

This publication is sent to Universities, Research Councils, Development Agencies and UN Agencies world-wide.

This publication appears every three months in English, French and Spanish.

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