|The research network entitled 'History and
Observation of Social Transformations' (HOST ), is underpinned by six
national research teams and one co-ordinating team located in France. Each
team comprises high-level researchers, involved in university teaching,
and decision-makers concerned with development policies and operations.
Argentina: The team is based at the Centro de
Investigación Sobre el Estado y la Administración (CISEA), Buenos
Aires. Official in charge: Jorge Schvarzer.
Bolivia: The team is based at the Instituto
Latino-Americano de Desarrollo y de Investigación Social (ILDIS), La
Paz. Official in charge: Julio Prudencio.
Benin: The team is based at the Faculté des
sciences agronomiques of the University of Bénin, Cotonou. Official in
charge: Gauthier Biaou.
Madagascar: The team is based at the Centre
national de la recherche sur l'environnement of the Ministry for
Research and of the University of Antananarivo. Official in charge:
Thailand: The team is based at the Universities of
Chulalongkorn, Thamassat and Kasetsart, Bangkok. Official in charge:
Vietnam: The team is based at the National Centre
for Social and Human Sciences and Economic Problems Review, Hanoi.
Official in charge: Bui Huy Khoat.
France: Multi-institutional co-ordinating team
involving ORSTOM, INRA and universities. Officials in charge: Alain
Mounier (ORSTOM, Bangkok), Pascal Byé (INRA, Montpellier), and André
Rosanvallon (IREP.D, CNRS, Université Pierre-Mendès France, Grenoble). The
scientific secretariat is provided by Ariel Meunier (INRA).
Preface Ali Kazancigil
Foreword Pascal Byé
Introduction Pascal Byé and Alain Mounier
Part 1 — Long-term patterns of growth
Paradoxes of Argentine (under) development
Bolivia: Patterns of growth (1870-1994)
J. Prudencio Bohrt and
Forms and phases of Thai industrialization in a historical
Alain Mounier, K. Kaewthep, V. Charoenloet
The main characteristics of the socio-economic development of Vietnam
from the mid-nineteenth century to the present
Bui Huy Khoat
Part 2 — Elements for an assessment
The course of long-term economic growth in Algeria
Benin: Agricultural production or international trade — A suggested
reading of the situation
HOST Benin team (A. Adégbidi, V. Agbo, J.
d'Almeida, L. Assogba, G. Biaou) and P. Byé
Residues of tradition in the economic crisis of Madagascar — A
suggested reading situation
HOST Madagascar team (R.
Rakotohariseheno, R. Ramahatra) and A. Meunier
Turkey's long journey to the 'Wealth of Nations'
The present volume is the first set of research results
produced by the international research network HOST. This network is based
on partnership with an equal distribution of tasks and leadership in each
participating institution within the network. The HOST network brings
together interdisciplinary research teams from Algeria, Argentina, Benin,
Bolivia, Madagascar, Thailand, Turkey and Vietnam,. Together the teams
elaborate the comparative framework for their research, and the
theoretical, methodological and policy relevant dimensions of the work to
The HOST network and its research and training activities
are part of the UNESCO-MOST Programme, an international social science
research programme engaged in strengthening networks, promoting
comparative and policy relevant research projects and pulling together the
efforts of research teams scattered across the globe in tackling the
prominent social policy issues of our time. The aim of MOST is to support
projects that lay down the baseboard of information and knowledge from
which effective policies can be devised. The MOST Programme operates in
three areas: multicultural and multi-ethnic societies; Cities and
urbanization; and, Globalization and its local impacts.
This project focuses on explaining and comprehending the
economic, social, political and cultural development of the participating
countries, in the context of conflicting and complex pressures exerted by
international and global forces from above, and by national forces and
priorities from within. The longitudinal and comparative analysis improves
our grasp of the importance and impact of the increasing globalization of
industry and markets, and provides a solid knowledge base for designing
appropriate development projects and policies for the participating
This volume is the result of the first phase of this
five-year project, and is divided into three parts. Part 1 provides an
overall diagnosis of the aspect of the economic and social change that
inspired and oriented the past three decades of development strategies of
the participating countries. The focus is on describing the core variables
over a lengthy period of time to determine the relations and movement
between industrialisation and agriculture. The authors then examine the
role played by the international environment on the dynamics between
agriculture and industrialisation, the degree of exclusion or dependence
of countries, and the influence of external trade on the pace and type of
industrialisation process. These analyses involve Algeria, Argentina,
Benin, Bolivia, Madagascar, Thailand, Turkey and Vietnam.
Part 2 is an Orientation Note that investigates whether
accepted economic and development theories offer pertinent and adequate
theoretical tools for explaining the congregation of industrialisation
toward new spaces, a phenomenon multiplying the number of countries
qualifying today as Newly Industrialised Countries. The authors critically
analyse the work done by the World Bank, in particular the substantial
report The East Asian Miracle (Oxford University Press, 1993) which
espouses growth theories first developed by Viner to explain successful
development strategies oriented towards the world market, and which oppose
the failure of Industrialisation Substitution Imports (ISI) in Latin
America with the successful policies of Export Oriented Industrialisation
adopted by the South East Asian countries.
By underscoring the importance of a historical analysis
of the development process, the authors illustrate the lacunas in the
argumentation advanced by the Bank and suggest another theoretical and
conceptual framework. More generally, the authors note that development
theories and models designed to read and interpret change, paradoxically
remain 'a-historical', being only slightly oriented to the comprehension
of long-term economic and social mutations.
Preliminary field analyses have also been produced by the
HOST Network for the Foundation for Human Progress, which, along with
UNESCO, helps support their work. The worksheets edited by Argentina,
Benin, Bolivia, Madagascar, Thailand and Vietnam will be added to the
"Dialogue for Human Progess" database that is managed by this Foundation.
One of the objectives of HOST is to prepare the ground for local surveys
aimed at monitoring social transformations. The worksheets presented are
computerized documents processed with UNESCO's ISIS software and
synthesize the first observations made about the transformation of social
systems. The worksheets can be used to present a case, a concrete
experience, as well as the main teachings in a book, an article, an
interview or contributions from grey literature. Topics addressed in the
worksheets articulate with the work of the HOST network and include daily
life and globalization in rural and urban environments, state actions,
family models and the role of women in development, and technical and
organizational responses to globalization in rural and urban
The HOST network benefits from the support of the
UNESCO-MOST Programme, the Foundation for Human Progress in Paris, France,
INRA (The National Institute for Agricultural Research, Paris, France) and
ORSTOM (French Institute for Scientific Research for Development
Co-operation). This volume offers a good example of the relevance of
international co-operative research for development planning that can
effectively tackle poverty, and promote social development in tandem with
1. HOST has been completed as a MOST Project. It
is no longer funded by the MOST Programme.