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MOST Newsletter No. 3
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MOST Newsletter
No. 3 - June 1995
also available in
French and in Spanish


Cultural Pluralism and multiculturalism: Managing Unity in Diversity

The emergence of multiculturalism as a prominent term in the policy discourse in different countries on diversity, migration, and social integration and cohesion, coincides with increasing awareness in the Western industrial societies that, despite development, economic growth and increasing regionalisation/globalisation, " ethnicity " and " cultural differences " are salient points of interest in the lives of large numbers of people. Indeed, diversity in patterns of identities and relations are today a benchmark of the great majority of societies in all regions, with statistics showing that only about 10% of countries can be reasonably qualified as ethnically homogenous.

In the midst of this diversity, governments are faced with the difficult task of planning and implementing policies that respect diversity within society or within national borders but which at the same time, through public institutions, secure a necessary unity within the diversity by transmitting shared values, a sense of civic duty and a sense of allegiance to the State. The complexity of this task for national authorities often is further deepened by the relative sharing of responsibility with a higher, regional governmental policy-making body and the perceived decline of the power of the Nation-state.

Examples of peaceful and democratic forms of cohabitation do exist in a number of countries: Switzerland, Sweden, Canada and Australia (to name a few), are frequently cited as illustrations . These last two countries have sought to accommodate identitarian claims through the adoption of a model of multiculturalism as an official policy response. Multiculturalism emphasises that acknowledging the existence of ethnic diversity and ensuring the rights of individuals to retain their culture should go hand in hand with enjoying full access to, participation in, and adhesion to, constitutional principles and commonly shared values prevailing in the society. By acknowledging the rights of individuals and groups and ensuring their equitable access to society, advocates of multiculturalism also maintain that such a policy benefits both individuals and the larger society by reducing pressures for social conflicts based on disadvantage and inequality, and is a way of reconciling cultural diversity and cohesion of the society.

Aside from the Canadian/Australian multicultural model for managing diversity (there are some significant differences between the two countries in their approach), there are two other types of models. The first, well-illustrated by France avoids to recognise the existence of national or linguistic minorities within its borders. This approach is characterised by nationality based on jus soli and a civic concept of citizenship. French citizens, whatever their ethnic origin, enjoy equal civic, cultural and linguistic rights as individuals, but not collectively, as minority groups. This integrationist response to diversity assumes that the non-recognition of minority groups is a way of preserving State unity and societal cohesion. On the whole, France has been quite successful in integrating its immigrant populations, however at present, with these populations ever increasing in size, the French Republic is struggling to cope democratically with diversity.

The second model, known as jus sanguinis, is illustrated by Japan and Germany. Citizenship in these countries is based on blood or ethnic origin, a legislation which restricts the extension of German or Japanese citizenship to individuals of a different origin. A notable change in Germany is its recent regulation which opens up the possibility of awarding German citizenship to Turkish immigrants who have lived in Germany for over 3 generations.

Policy responses to the management of diversity thus vary considerably among countries. The recent World Summit on Social Development recognised the importance of finding politically, economically and socially acceptable solutions to improving the social cohesion and social integration of societies. What is needed is research which will improve the quality of the evaluation of existing social policies, and which subsequently will provide a useful knowledge base for the design of appropriate social integration policies that secure unity in diversity at the national and the increasingly important regional level. N.A.


Thematic Development: Migration and diversity in the Asia-Pacific

One of the outcomes of the MOST regional Conference for Asia (21-25 November 1994, Bangkok, Thailand) (see MOST Newsletter no. 2) was concensus regarding the need to stimulate regional co-operation in planning appropriate social and economic policies that respond to the consequences of the increased migratory mouvements within many Asian countries. An overview of this issue is developed below.

photo (enfants): Sydney, Australia: Creating Unity in Diversity

The last two decades have seen a massive transformation of the Asian region. The pace and scale of economic, demographic, political and social change is unprecedented in world history. One of the most significant elements in this change has been a substantial increase in both internal and international migration. Within nations, migration between regions and from rural to urban areas have reached a vast scale, throwing together different ethno-linguistic and cultural groups that were previously highly regionalised. Population movements between nations, which occurred only on a very limited scale in the early years of independence from European colonisation, have increased greatly in scale and complexity since the 1970s. There are migrations of many types, involving a much wider range of socio-economic, gender, age and ethno-linguistic groups than ever before.

Asia is a vast and complex region, and its nations vary greatly in their degree of ethnic diversity. Some nations, such as Japan, are relatively homogeneous while others, such as Indonesia, have a high degree of diversity, being home to more than two hundred distinct ethno-linguistic groups, and with substantial representation of each of the world's major religions, etc. However, even within nations such as Indonesia, each group tended in the past to be highly regionalised in its geographical location. Asia has historically experienced vast colonising migrations, but up to two decades ago it largely comprised a patchwork of relatively ethnically-homogeneous regions and sub-regions. However, both at a national and sub-national level, the new migrations have produced considerable changes in ethno-cultural patterns.

Differing national and regional patterns of demographic growth and economic development are crucial in stimulating migration. As inter-regional and international differences in labour supply and demand have widened, time and money costs of travel have been reduced and information flows have grown exponentially. The result has been a huge spatial extension of labour markets so that workers are drawn to areas of opportunity from a much wider area than ever before. But labour migration is only one part of the story. Millions of people have been forced to move as refugees or asylum-seekers by political unrest, armed conflict, persecution of minorities or environmental catastrophes.

Whatever its causes, primary migration generally leads to continuing migratory chains, based especially on family reunion. Within each broad migratory flow, there are generally a variety of sub-categories: temporary and permanent migrants; legal workers and undocumented workers; highly-skilled personnel; spouses, children, parents and other relatives; return migrants or circulating migrants, and so on. Although policy-makers try to distinguish clearly between such groups, this is not always possible, because members of different categories may be part of the same migratory chain, and may become 'category jumpers' under a variety of circumstance.

The situation is further complicated by the emergence of a 'migration industry': large numbers of agents, middle-men and other facilitators of migration, motivated by commercial or other considerations. These people organise and encourage migration through complex transnational networks, which are often hard to control through national policies. In extreme cases, such agents indulge in trafficking of illegal migrants, and in practices of exploitation of women, through abusive types of spouse sponsorship, or recruitment of women for the sex industry.

Although there are a very large number of distinct migratory flows concerning Asian countries, each with its own specific set of causes, characteristics and effects, these flows can generally be seen as part of certain major migration systems (see Skeldon 1992; Stahl, 1993; Castles and Miller, 1993):

    - migration from Asian countries to Western Europe, North America and Australia;
    - contract labour migration to the Gulf oil countries;
    - labour migration within Asia, particularly from less-developed areas to newly-industrialising economies;
    - mobility of highly-qualified personnel;
    - movements of students;
    - movement of refugees and asylum-seekers
Each of these migration systems involves millions of people. Migratory flows between countries are usually linked to other types of relationships, such as colonialism, military presence, political co-operation, trade, investment or cultural penetration. Often flows start with one type of migration, such as spontaneous labour migration or contract labour migration, and then continue with other types, such as family reunion, asylum-seeker movement or permanent settler migration. More and more countries are affected by multiple types of migration simultaneously. This trend towards diversification of migration reflects the fact that migration is a social process which develops its own dynamics. These relate not only to macro-level relationships between societies, but also to micro-level interactions concerning families and communities.

As a consequence of recent migration there has been an unprecedented increase in ethno-cultural diversity in many Asia-Pacific countries. While some nations can be classified as predominantly emigration countries (e.g. Philippines, Indonesia) or immigration nations (Singapore, Australia, Japan), others have large flows of both immigration and emigration (e.g. Malaysia, Thailand, Hong Kong), while still others have passed through a rapid transition from emigration to immigration status (South Korea, Taiwan). In Indonesia, Malaysia, PDR of China, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Singapore, Taiwan and Australia, migration and ethno-cultural diversity seem likely to be major factors in social and political change. However, this situation has not yet been adequately acknowledged by policy-makers and researchers (in contrast with the situation in older immigration countries in North America and Europe as well as Australia, where there is now considerable research and policy debate on the effects of immigration on society). In the Asia-Pacific Region it is clear that there are major gaps in the understanding of migratory phenomena on the part of policy-makers, and that social scientists have not yet been able to carry out the research and analysis necessary to provide an improved knowledge-base for policy formulation. The reasons for this lie mainly in the dominant perspective on migration in the region, which may be characterised as 'the myth of temporariness': i.e. the belief that most migrations are motivated by short-term economic considerations, and that they will not lead to long-term settlement. Both policy and research have therefore concentrated on regulation of migration and on labour market issues. By contrast, there is strong evidence of trends towards permanent settlement of migrants in many places. This will have important long-term consequences for both sending and receiving societies.

Here lies the importance of building an international interdisciplinary research network in the Asia-Pacific region, using existing informal research linkages which would apply innovative theoretical and methodological approaches in migration studies at both the national and international levels and which would bring about significant improvements in the level of quantitative and qualitative knowledge about migration and ethno-cultural diversity in the region. If such a need is met, this would lead to analytical and theoretical advances in the social sciences as well as to an improvement in social scientific research capabilities and training facilities. Research findings could be used to formulate options for improved polices in the management of migration and ethnic diversity therefore serve as an important resource for policy-makers in the region.
Stephen Castles * & N.A
* Director, Center for Multicultural Studies, University of Wollongong, N.S.W., Australia


Global Cultural Diversity Conference, (Sydney, Australia, 26-28 April 1995)

The Global Cultural Diversity Conference was a major event (1000 participants from over 50 countries), with the opening addresses by the Secretary-General of the UN and the Prime Minister Keating, closing address by the Director-General of UNESCO. Several ministers from different countries, including the Vice-President of South Africa, Mr. Mbeki also participated.

The MOST programme was specifically invited to contribute to the Conference and to the planning of its follow-up. A MOST discussion paper on "Multi-culturalism: A Policy Response to Diversity" was prepared in view of this Conference and was distributed in 1000 copies at the event.

Each of the three days was devoted to a major theme: "Cultural diversity: from the local to the global"; "Redressing the balance: the struggle to be heard"; "Looking to the future: building cohesion in diverse societies", discussed in plenary session and workshops. The issues discussed covered a very large spectrum: cultural diversity at the global level, particularly in the UN System; the influence of the media and markets; migration patterns and policies; health and welfare policies; language policies; industry and employment; human rights and political participation of cultural and ethnic communities; institutional change for multi-culturalism; managing urban diversity; management at the firm level and culturally diverse work-force; and last but not least, the specific problems of the indigenous populations (Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in Australia), which were given a large place in the Conference.

Despite shortcomings and the mileage that remains to be covered, this country moved, within a quarter of a century from the "white Australia" to a multi-cultural policy (it was only in 1967 that for the first time certain rights were recognized for Aborigines; the first serious debates and studies about multi-culturalism began in 1972-1973, inspired by the example of Canada, where the debate had started in 1963 and a policy of multi-culturalism was instituted by Trudeau in 1971. Furthermore, it was only as late as 1993 that the current government managed to pass a bill cancelling the Terra Nullius legislation dating from the 18th, establishing that when the British discovered Australia, the country belonged to nobody, and thus the totality of all the land could be appropriated by the newcomers)

The structural factors underlying the multicultural policy are firstly that 42% of the population was either born abroad, or one of their parents were born abroad and thus societal cohesion can best be secured through a recognition of cultural specificities; and secondly, that the country, situated in a particularly dynamic and booming region, considers that its future status and the welfare of its population depend on its ability to become fully part of this region. The "white Australia" policy was no longer feasible and the current policy response to multi-culturalism is not only an evidence of a commitment to democracy and human rights, but also a proof of the political intelligence and far-sightedness of the country.

The recognition of the identity and cultural rights of immigrant communities, measures to empower them and support their participation in political life, to help them obtain their fair share from the economic and social resources of the country (state schools offer courses in some 100 languages; there are radio programmes in 67 languages; state administrations have interpretation services in dozens of languages to help non English-speaking immigrants, a "productive diversity agenda" aiming at increasing access to economic opportunities is implemented; etc.) are counter-balanced by the requirement of loyalty to the Australian Constitution and nation, English as the only official language, commitment to democracy, the primacy of the rights of individuals, gender equality.


Sydney, Australia: Creating Unity in Diversity


This is not to say that certain persistent problems can be easily resolved - particularly the issues involved in the relations between the Aborigines on the one side, and on the other the latecomers (with varying degrees of lateness, starting with the British, and continuing with Polish, Italian, Greek, Arab, Asian, Turkish, etc. immigrants), and also that multi-culturalism may turn sour, "ethnic policies" prevail, especially if the economic crisis and unemployment worsen, and thus threaten social cohesion, rather than strengthening it. On the whole, however, what has already been achieved appears to be quite remarkable.

As regards the follow-up of the Conference, UNESCO and MOST were cited in a text distributed on the last day by the Conference organizers, as having the necessary experience and competence to play an active role in it.: " Among the specific ideas proposed were: a possible International Institute of Multicultural Affairs, the use of UNESCO's Management of Social Transformations Program, and the convening of a further international conference on cultural diversity ". Expected of MOST in this follow-up is the comparison, analysis and assessment of existing policy responses to cultural diversity in various regions and diffusion of this information at the international level. A.K.


Just published:

" Searching for New Development Strategies: The Challenges of the Social Summit " by Ignacy Sachs. MOST Policy Papers 1 (to be obtained from the MOST Secretariat)

Special Feature:

International Social Science Journal 143 March 1995 " Measuring and Evaluating Development " For purchases contact: Journals Marketing Manager, Blackwell Publishers, 108 Cowley Road Oxford OX4 1JF, England


Corrigendum:

Newsletter no 2. pg. 7 " Republic of Macedonia " should have read " Former Yugloslav Republic of Macedonia ":


MOST AT THE NATIONAL LEVEL

Countries with MOST Liaison Committees:

Argentina, Australia, Austria, Benin, Burundi, Canada, Columbia, Costa Rica, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Iceland, India, Iran, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Latvia Malawi, Malta, Norway, Pakistan, Philippines, Republic of Belarus, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad & Tobago, Tunisia, Vietnam, Zaire

Reporting from MOST Liaison Committees:

On 9 March the Government of Latvia, through their National Commission for UNESCO formed a national MOST liaison committee. Members of the Committee come from the Latvian Council of Science, the Institutes of Economy and of Philosophy of the Latvian Academy of Science, the Institute of Mathematics and Computer Science from Latvian University, and from the Planning Department of the Chief Architect's Office of Riga. We look forward to the development of many relevant activities with this country and in this part of the region.

The French Liaison Committee is organising a two-day meeting on the theme of Coping locally and regionally with technological, economic and environmental phenomena. The discussion is to be oriented toward examining the diversity of management approaches developed at the local level in response to global change. The time will be used to glance at existing research in this area, with case studies presented by researchers from various countries.

On the initiative of the Dutch Liaison Committee and in collaboration with FLACSO-Costa Rica a symposium is planned in Costa early 1996, on "Local initiatives against inequality, poverty and discrimination".

The Australian Liaison Committee organized the MOST Pacific Sub-regional Consultation, held in Sydney Australia 28-29 April 1995. (see Meeting Outcomes, below).


Summary of past meetings

Tromsoe
Norway 30-31 March 1995

This meeting, organised by the University of Tromsoe in collaboration with the Norwegian National Commission for UNESCO, focused on the particular MOST theme of " Coping locally and regional with economic, technological and environmental transformations. The meeting sought opinions of invited researchers from Nordic countries, Russia and Canada as to what should be the research priorities and strategies for the northern regions.

It became clear from the presentations and discussions that many of the issues raised float around a central policy research question of concern to both social and natural scientists in the region, which is: What are the conditions for sustainable development in the Arctic? Embodied in this problematic are some specific questions such as: What are the development perspectives for people living in the Arctic communities? Are the cultural characteristics of the Arctic communities being devoured by the international society? Can the concept of sustainable development be turned into an analytical instrument to grasp and comprehend the interrelationship between nature, society, economy, technology and culture, which constitutes the conditions for development in the Arctic? What is the role of fisheries in regional development and how are public policies " fishery dependent "? What is the role played by indigenous populations in promoting and preserving " sustainable development "? The striking similarities amongst the concerns tackled by the participants coming from the countries circumscribing the arctic circle reconfirm the need to consolidate efforts in developing a regional and interdisciplinary policy relevant research project. We are grateful to the University of Tromsoe and the Norwegian National Commission for their initiative. N.A.


MOST Pacific Sub-regional Consultative Meeting
Sydney Australia, 28-29 April 1995

This meeting, organised by the Australian National Commission and the MOST Liaison Committee, with the participation of scholars and policy-makers from Australia, Fiji, Naura, Nuie, New Zealand, Western Samoa, Solomon Islands, Papua New Guinea, Tonga, Kiribati, Vanuatu, discussed research and policy priorities and capacity building and networking issues of the Pacific countries.

The issues are greatly determined by the geography of the region which essentially is disseminated, distant islands. The Pacific sub-region is already home to number of research activities, some networks and a major regional higher education institution at the University of South Pacific, in Sueva, Fiji. However, priority in the social sciences for the region´s island states is the establishment of co-ordinated research and training networks that are sustained over time

In terms of research and policy issues, population movements, cultural and ethnic diversity, as well as urbanisation, compounded by such movements are of highest importance. Within countries, migratory movements result in population concentrations in one island, with uncontrolled urbanisation and corresponding social problems, such as poor housing, squatting, delinquency. Between countries, population movements involve economic migration and tourism. Migratory flows have social, economic and cultural impact in traditional Pacific societies.

As regards follow-up actions, it was decided that:in early 1996, MOST will finance a regional survey, to be conducted from the regional University of South Pacific, Suva, Fiji, probably under the direction of Prof. Epeli Hau'ofa. The survey would assess the state of research and social science capacities, as a basis for further action for establishing a MOST Pacific network for training and research. Such a network can be set up at a sub-regional meeting on population movements and tourism issues, to take place in Suva, Fiji, in 1996.

The final report of the consultation is being prepared by the Australian National Commission for UNESCO. A.K.


Regional MOST Meeting for Latin America
Buenos Aires, Argentina, 28-31 March 1995

Some 100 social scientists from Central and South America participated in this conference, which benefited from the interest and very generous support of the host country. The conference was opened by the President of Argentina, H.E. Mr. Carlos Menem, who was accompanied by the Minister of Culture and Education. The Secretary of State for Social Development, Dr. Eduardo Amadeo, participated in a session on the follow-up of the World Summit for Social Development. The debates were directed by the vice-president of the MOST Council, Professor Torcuato di Tella. Also, several other Member States of the MOST Council were represented at the meeting, notably Costa Rica, Colombia, Mexico, and Brazil by Embassy staff in Buenos Aires, and Chile, by Professor Raul Urzua, who came from Santiago for that occasion. The Latin American Faculty of Social Sciences (FLACSO) and the Latin American Council for the Social Sciences (CLACSO) actively participated in the preparation of the Conference.

On multi-cultural and multi-ethnic issues, the focus was on the problems relating to indigenous populations, their fuller participation in and access to the development process, as well as the constitutional and institutional dimensions allowing for both social integration and respect for cultural diversity. In this field, the approach advocated was action-research, with the participation in research of the people under study. On cities, the priority issues that emerged were the urban economy, citizenship and civil society in cities, democratic governance and social development in cities. The debates on globalization and the local-global articulations emphasised the new roles for the State in facing the challenges of global transformations; the impact of globalization on employment and the organisation of work; the tensions which affect the national level, and democratisation efforts, as a result of contradictory trends towards heterogeneity (identities movements, religious sects, exacerbated nationalism) and towards economic and technological homogenisation.

Finally, the Buenos Aires conference discussed the modalities of the follow-up of the Copenhagen Social Summit in Latin America. In this regard, MOST is well placed to provide governments of the region with conceptualisation, methodologies and data, which will serve in the monitoring and evaluation of national social development policies. In the aftermath of the conference, at least two major international projects are expected to emerge from the region. One of them is to be presented by FLACSO, through a co-operation of its 5 or 6 national branches. Given its intergovernmental and academic character, FLACSO is one of the relevant partners for MOST. A.K.


Mining Borax, province of Jujuy, Argentina, 3800 metres in altitude


International Healthy and Ecological Cities Congress
Madrid, 22-25 March 1995

This meeting was organized by Ayuntamiento de Madrid, WHO, OECD and the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, as an outcome of the Roskilde Symposium held at the time of the World Summit for Social Development (see MOST Newsletter No. 2, March 1995). A part of the meeting was devoted to exploring how UNESCO and the MOST framework on managing social transformations in cities could interact with the WHO Healthy Cities Project, the EFILWC. Institutional and inter-programme collaboration on this topic is particularly beneficial for identifying appropriate policy solutions for the improvement of city life. CSJ


Announcement:

The 33 Member State Intergovernmental Council of the MOST Programme will meet at UNESCO headquarters in Paris from 3-7 July 1995.

The Intergovernmental Council of MOST:

Algeria, Argentina, Bangladesh, Brazil, Bulgaria, Cameroon, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Egypt, France, Germany, Ghana, Republic of Guinea, India, Italy, Japan, Madagascar, Mexico, Netherlands, Pakistan, Philippines, Poland, Russian Federation, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Togo, Tunisia, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

President: Mohammed M. EL GAWHARY (Egypt)
Vice-Presidents:T. DI TELLA (Argentina), N. GENOV (Bulgaria), P. de SENARCLENS (Switzerland), K. TONGDHAMACHART (Thailand), M.A. HERMASSI (Tunisia), D: CHIMANIKIRE (Zimbabwe);
Rapporteur: M ZIOLKOWSKI (Poland)


The Scientific Steering Committee of the programme will meet from 29 June - 3 July 1995 in Paris.

List of members:
Prof. Elvi-Whittaker, Chairperson (Canada)
Prof. Norbert Lechner, Vice-Chairperson (Chile)
Prof. Narifumi M. Tachimoto, Vice-Chairperson (Japan)
Prof. Yoginder K. Alagh (India)
Prof. Maurice Aymard (France)
Prof. Arnlaug Leira (Norway)
Prof. Antoni Kuklinski (Poland)
Mr. Davinder Lambas (Kenya)
Prof. Licia Valladares (Brazil)

Member ex-officio of the SSC:
Prof. Mohammed M. El-Gawhary,
President of the MOST Intergovernmental Council


African Regional Meeting
Dakar Senegal 22-24 June 1995

The purpose of this meeting is to introduce the MOST Programme to scholars, policy-makers and representatives of international, governmental and non-governmental organisations. The geographic coverage will be sub-Saharan Africa. The meeting is organised in collaboration with CODESRIA (Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa). There will be a number of invited contributions. Discussion panels will be organised around the three themes of the MOST Programme and on capacity-building and needs. Individual contributions will focus on such issues as progress being made by different African countries towards democratic governance; emerging policies geared to the eradication of poverty, violence and conflict; mechanisms of conflict resolution; coping with the AIDS pandemic; and, the challenges and opportunities faced by African countries in an age of increasing globalisation. On the final day of the meeting, participants will reconstitute into working groups to formulate possible research proposals for consideration by MOST. J.N.


New Information Technology and the MOST Clearing House

A new industrial information infrastructure is emerging which has been described as a " seamless web of communication networks, computers, databases and consumer electronics that will put vast amounts of information at user's fingertips ". The dangers of this so-called digital revolution are generally known and we will only mention two examples here. The first concerns the lack of an efficient system for regulating information flows in the " Internet "system. The traditional mechanisms of peer review for validating achievement do not seem adequate, but what is the impact of this situation on knowledge production practices? For example, it is easy to see that uncertainty about intellectual property rights could encourage secrecy; that bandwagon effects could be provoked by invalid information and lead to wasting scarce resources; that the costs of filtering out the " ïnfojunk "of an information overload could be high, hindering creativity rather than promoting it. The second point concerns the problem of technical " literacy ". People who encounter political, economic or social difficulties in mastering the new technical " Internet culture "are likely to look upon the idea of having vast amounts of information at their fingertips as being at best a goal to achieve or, at worst, as being the expression of a form of cultural imperialism.

The Clearing house is an information management project set up as a capacity building initiative for MOST. It is designed to supply information, the analytical techniques and policy tools required to link knowledge and action. Now in its first phase, a prototype is currently being designed in order to show the stakeholders of MOST (policy-makers, researchers, information professionals,...) how information can be collected, processed and used by end-users over the Internet. The goal of the prototype is twofold: first, we want to provide MOST stakeholders with the opportunity of getting a " hands-on "grasp of the quality control problems that have to be raised and treated when building a distributed, world-wide information management system to actively support policy-making; second, we want to install the prototype in different sites and in different geographical regions throughout the world in order to identify the obstacles to the acquisition of an " Internet culture "which we will then try and overcome by appropriate training and education programmes. Our method is called " co-operative prototyping ": not only do technologies shape working practices but these, in turn, mould technology. Co-operative prototyping implies organising this adjustment process in order to dynamically build the system and user requirements of our projects. The next issue of this Newsletter will announce when the Clearing House will be open for access on the Internet.
Bill Turner
Karl Van Meter
CERESI, 1 Place Aristide Briand
92190 Meudon


DARE, try it!

Searching for a social science institution in Bulgaria? Researching on issues related to multiculturalism or cultural pluralism? Seeking an Institution in Burkina-Faso on urban problems or maybe a periodical on ethnicity or democracy?

The UNESCO DARE Data Bank has this and other referral data among 11,000 references to social science research and training institutions, specialists, documentation/information services, periodicals, and human rights, peace and international law training and research institutions. The data bank is easily accessible online via ECHO, server of the European Commission, through:

    - Packet switching networks (NUA 0270448112)
    - Videotext (national videotext services, France: 3619 ECHO)
    - INTERNET (Telnet.echo.lu)
Readers familiar with CD-ROM may also request the UNESCO CD-ROM containing the full DARE Data Bank, together with the " Bibliography of UNESCO Documents and Publications ", the " UNESCO Thesaurus ", and many other useful thematic data bases. (" UNESCO Databases on CD-ROM ", UNESCO Publishing, FFr. 1,100). Traditional paper listings may also be sent. The newly published " Provisional Directory of Social Science Institutions in Central and Eastern Europe, 1995 " is also available on diskette.

Contact:
Mrs. C. Bauer, UNESCO SHS/DC
1 rue Miollis, 75732 Paris Cedex 15, France
E-mail : c.bauer@unesco.org


OPINION

This new section of our Newsletter is intended to provide a public space for readers to share opinions, comments or views relating to our articles or to share experiences that have bearing on our activities. If you have something to say please send short texts to the Editor of the Newsletter.


Layout and printing: EGOPRIM
Illustrations: Florence Bonjean
Photos: Munshi Ahmed/Asiaweek; F. Gohier/Explorer

MOST Secretariat
UNESCO, 1 Miollis, 75732 Paris Cedex 15, France
Fax: (33-1) 45 68 47 24

Executive Secretary and Director,
MOST Newsletter
:
ALI KAZANCIGIL

Editor, MOST Newsletter
and Multi-cultural and Multi-ethnic Societies
:
N. AURIAT
E-mail : n.auriat@unesco.org

National MOST Liaison Committees and UNESCO National Commissions are invited to submit to the Editor information on national MOST activities for publication in upcoming editions of the Newsletter.

Ministries, NGOs, research councils, research institutions, universities and other UN Agencies working with social science research projects may send information to the Editor for diffusion in this publication.

This publication is sent to Universities, Research Councils, Development Agencies and UN Agencies world-wide.

This publication appears every three months in English, French and Spanish.


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